Credit card facilities in Australia 1) In Australia a number from banks are there that provide with the credit schedule facility but a very few of them fend the customer with promising facilities and other required services.2) Every such Australian bank has its own criteria for attention cards. Out of these banks ANZ Bank is the one that offers its pelanggan the best deals with 12.99% p.a. on their credit cards. ANZ Bank charges unethical profit rate on the money borrowed through their credit cards. 3) Another most trusted and respectable bank In Australia is the Commonwealth Bank that unlike the ANZ bank not only provides the best deal in the credit cards but yet issues change withdrawals at a low rate. 4)On the other hand St George Vertigo Bench not only provides even immerse rate of 9.95% but one can ditto find the facility of no interest charge on the balance transfer to a new card for 6 months.5) The other Australian banks that offer good deals to its consumers are NAB Bank, Westpac Bank and HSBC Bank. Total these banks Are well managed and efficient benefit providers. They all neither only provide their consumers with good interest rates on the cards but also use them with best of the banking services. These banks handle all the accounts nicely and pay a good interest on the amount deposited from 3.5 to 5%. They are a good option where one can get their saving deposited securely.Requirements for credit cards 1) One has to fulfill omnipotence the required formalities to get the account started and toil fully in accordance with the terms and conditions that are thetical by the banks.2) It is essential for the person willing to open an account to give the bank all necessary details regarding their other savings, loans, investments connective other details of the money he/she possesses. 3) One should have good credit ratings that would be beneficial to open the account without any problem. Benefits concerning credit cards Umpteen banks provide its customers with amazing rewards that serve them emporium more frequently .The customers are benefited with free home appliances and a travel as well. These rewards are given on the point basis. These points are made on having unblemished credit ratings that are turned into rewards on a regular basis. The other banks that provide its customers with salubrious credit card services are the Commonwealth Bank and the NAB Bank. Thus before you exit to avail credit card, ensure that you fulfill all the criteria of the Australian bank.
Asset cards 1) A attribution card is in a way a system that enables one to borrow some amount of money, for the purchase of goods and other small articles and services, from a bank oppositely any other organization that provides the financial help past making use of a plastic card. This card helps one pledge money in case of shortage from cash. 2) Certain equal concerning interest is charged over the borrowed amount from the consumer for a particular period of time by the issuer of the card. However it is quite must for the customers to get the best deal done aside choosing the most appropriate card that helps save money. 3) These credit cards are also issued with a number of rewards sometimes like free home appliances else even a uncommitted holiday or travel. Use of credit cards in Australia 1) In Australia a number of banks are there that provide with the credit card facility still a very few of them provide the customer with promising facilities and other required services. Out of these banks ANZ Bank is the one that offers its buyer the best deals with 12.99% p.a. on their credit cards. 2) ANZ Ramp charges low interest rate on the money borrowed finished their credit cards. Another most trusted and respectable bank In Australia is the Commonwealth Bank that unlike the ANZ bank not only provides the best deal in the credit cards however also issues cash withdrawals at a low rate. 3)On the other laborer St George Vertigo Bank not lone provides even lower rate of 9.95% but one cup also find the facility of no interest charge on the hang transfer to a regenerated tarot for 6 months. The additional Australian banks that offer good deals to its customers are NAB Bank, Westpac Slope and HSBC Bank. 4) All these banks Are well managed and efficient service providers. They all not only render their customers with good interest rates on the cards but also avail them with boss of the banking services. One needs to be at least 18 years old to avail a credit card. Someone applying for the issue from credit card must be a voter of the country of a permanent resident of that place. For the visitors the facility is available only if they have their visa. Individual has to give row all the aliment details including the information about their loans, savings, investments et al property. One should also comply documents for their identification like the driving license or the birth certificate.
Ford Powerstroke engines convey increased power and world-class concert in diesel trucks, but there’s a world of aftermarket products that swipe your truck to the next level. Every truck enthusiast is out for more power and better performance. One of the most popular modifications for the Ford Powerstroke is adding a turbo or a supercharger. If you have added undivided of these options, you’ll find that it’s worthwhile to replace your herd intercooler with an aftermarket option.
HOW AN INTERCOOLER WORKS
When diesel turbos compress air, they also heat it. The intercooler is attached to the turbocharger and works by removing the added heat and giving the air added density before it enters the engine. Denser air has more oxygen, which improves combustion as well as turbine efficiency, resulting in higher continuous power, increased power, exceed fuel economy and less exhaust gas temperature.
BANKS TECHNI-COOLER SYSTEM
If these benefits have you shopping for a new intercooler, I highly recommend buying a Banks Techni-Cooler System. This intercooler provides boost increase, ambiance bulk increase, et sequens better airflow that really out-shine other aftermarket intercoolers.
BOOST INCREASE – Aftermarket intercoolers should do more for your diesel engine’s performance than fair cool air. The Banks intercooler dominates other brands with a 45.9% boost increase concluded stock, giving your turbo charged locomotive a lot expanded power. Just how much more power are we talking about? Try up to 60 extra horsepower and an additional 140 ft/lbs. of torque! This massive boost increase allows your turbo or supercharger to reach higher performance levels every time you step on the gas.
AIR DENSITY Raise – As stated above, the whole intend of an intercooler is to accumulative hypaethral density. The superior oxygen levels in the cooler air lowers EGT’s, improves economy and allows for greatest power. The Techni-Cooler provides a 12.7% increase in air density, giving your engine better performance across the board.
AIRFLOW INCREASE – Intercoolers should ideally cool compressed air without blocking airflow to the radiator. While it’s true that all intercoolers impede airflow, some brands block more and others block less. If an intercooler stifles airflow to the radiator, the resulting higher temperature could cause engine overheating, reducing fuel consumption also power. Air blockage can even lead to heat-related breakdowns. Instead regarding using the typical bar-and-plate construction, the Techni-Cooler has been built to streamline airflow through a more aerodynamic design.
Techni-Coolers are also manufactured using cast aluminum instead concerning welded paper aluminum, for a superior construction und so weiter support dependability. The guts surface area is an extra 25% larger than the establishment intercooler, combine that with extra-large streamlined end tanks et al you’ll go out the Banks intercooler really is built for optimizing fever transfer and maximum cooling.
To truly make the most of your diesel turbo or supercharged performance modifications, you really need to invest in an aftermarket intercooler. Backed by a two year warranty, the Banks container includes everything needed to install your new Techni-Cooler as a absolute replacement for your inventory intercooler. If you are ready to make the upgrade, the Banks Techni-Cooler is sure to give you quicker throttle response, higher pitiless dynamism at any exhaust gas temperature, better economy and a more reliable ride.
Taking out further type of loan other than payday loans is a sure method to end up in debt. Some people prefer to torment up charges on their credit cards than to take away a payday loan, but this is a common mistake. The APR interest rank on a credit card is usually much higher than the APR interest on payday loans. This means that using a credit card is more expensive than applying for payday loans. A representative example concerning this is granting your car broke fuzz further you had to pay $200 to get your car repaired. You could pay the $200 bill using your credit card with a 35% APR interest rate, or you could apply for a payday loan and pay an APR interest rate of barely 15%. This example shows that payday loans could save you $40 in this example.
If you want to apply for payday loans, you should be told how secure it is. In this day and age you jug even appeal for online payday loans. Payday loans online are repeatedly even easier to give for that regular payday loans, because you do not receive to forsake your computer to go anywhere. You vessel apply for payday loans online without even leaving your home so long as you possess internet access.
Also, because applying for payday loans online is so competitive, you will again find much cheaper APR interest rates online than at a brick and mortar business. Payday loans that you apply for online are too approved much faster that traditional layer and mortar payday loan lenders. If you need fast cash now, an online payday accommodation is the best way to go. Payday loans online are often approved within an hour and the cash is deposited smack into your bank account. You cannot get life any easier than applying for payday loans online.
Payday lending is much easier than applying for a loan at a bank. If you apply for a loan at a bank, they will expect you to have excellent if not perfect credit. A loan at a bank may also claim you to provide them with some sort of collateral and before they will take up to ninety days to review your loan application. This is not at each the case with payday loans. When you apply for payday loans, the payday accommodation lenders will not even check your credit at all. All you need to qualify for payday loans is to prove that you are employed and that you tin afford to repay the utter amount of the payday loan on the date that it is due. So sempiternity as you are versatile to provide the payday lenders with this assurance, they will nought look at your credit score at all. Payday lenders also do not force that you give them any ancillary and unlike a bank, payday loans are often approved in a matter of entire hours.
If you are having financial difficulties and are interested in scholarship more circa payday loans, my I recommend them to you? I become bot taking out payday loans for years instead regarding utilizing a credit card and instead of utilizing a bank. Payday loans have worked very well for me and my family and I intend to keep using them.
In addition to miles of coastline, one-of-a kind geographic features, plus historical charm, the Outer Banks is the ideal dispose to find a unique and accommodating vacation rental. As you plan your trip to North Carolina’s barrier islands, take a little time to find the perfect home away from home.Whether the southern communities on Ocracoke Atoll appeal to you or you prefer to stay close to the more plebeian communities of Brodie Island, there is a vacation rental that has everything you need for a memorable trip. Most come with basic features like a washer and dryer, a fully-stocked kitchen, and an expansive deck where you can enjoy a relaxing lunch in the stunning Outer Banks surroundings. The extras, however, are what frame your rental unique and set it miles apart from the cookie cutter hotels that lack the amenities and convenience of a vacation address rental.The advantage to a vacation rental in the Outer Banks is the freedom it provides the family, to say nothing of added amenities one won’t find in a simple motel. Many of the vacation rentals in the arena are equipped with high-end furnishings and large bedrooms. A family of four or lustrum will be able to stay more comfortably in a rental, with each child enjoying a private room while the parents may enjoy their own solitude. Taking interested consideration that pets are part of the family, a check with an block rental agent will determine which vacation homes allow dogs and cats to stay on premises.Behind the house, a pebbled path will plumb you to a day filled with all the beach activities you can imagine. Outdoor showers will keep sand from reaching inside, and the screened porch will make the flawless setting for a home-cooked meal. There are lots concerning activities in the Outer Banks, such as museums, sailing tours, und so weiter wildlife refuges, and they will likely draw you to the outside world for much like the day. Don’t be surprised, however, if you end up stealing a couple of hours away from the outdoors, relaxing in a comfy chair with a pulp on your lap. This is your vacation, soon all, so devote it as you please.For a different view, try heading south. You’ll still have sum the opportunities of the beach and access to museums and impressive sights if you reserve a cottage in Kill Devil Hills or Nag’s Head. There are large properties here as well, but if you’re seeking something more modest in terms about price uncertainty size, you won’t be disappointed.Private pools and hottubs are other amenities one will not find in a motel. In a vacation rental, one receptacle simmer after a long day of sightseeing in relative privacy. For a quiet vacation, it is recommended to rent a domestic where private beach access is available, away from the numerous areas of the shore. Currituck County and Duck offer the most isolation, away from the larger towns of Nags Head and Kill Devil Hills, despite are close enough to drive to for a day of attractions and shopping. VisitCurrituck.com, the official site of Currituck Outer Banks tourism, offers an extensive listing of area real principality agents who handle vacation rentals. Here you can research what you need to enjoy your Outer Banks vacation.
What would you do if your bank called to tell you that your home assets line of credit had been frozen alternative even cancelled? For most homeowners, shock would be the first emotion followed quickly by confusion. Why would banks be pulling the line regarding credit from homeowners who have had no trouble paying off the loan. Banks have recently been pulling home equity lines of credit from omnipotence applicants, even those homeowners who never tapped the line of monetary credit.The number of homeowners who have been affected have bot in the tens of thousands, now more also more banks are trying to stem mortgage losses. As banks are dealing with heavy losses from their subprime mortgages and additional high risk loans, the viable home equity loans are also taking a hit as the bank pulls the money before this equity credit line and becomes a problem.Essentially, banks are trying to save their money from being lost to homes that fall into foreclosure. There are many home owners who took out lines of credit on their house when the real estate market was high. Now these part home owners are needing to sell their house but are having obvious problems finding home buyers. The first thing home owners look to for money when they can no longer afford their hypothecation is the value in their house. In late third period of 2007, the delinquencies on HELOC mortgages increased 47 percent from the previous year. Analysts have predicted higher numbers for 2008. For this reason, banks have been responded by pulling their Home Equity Lines of Credit, most about which were in high foreclosure cites like, Las Vegas Nevada, Stockton California, Boise, Idaho, Miami Florida, Houston Texas, New Jersey, and Orlando Florida. Where are you most vulnerable to have a frozen HELOC? If you live in a housing area where prices have fallen by 10 percent or more, your property might be the prime target for a HELOC freeze. There are new lending standards which method that your HELOC will be in danger of disappearing if you bought your condominium with trace money down, especially if you purchased your new home within the last few years. These factors will combine to see a higher rate of foreclosures and might acquire your financial institution hold that they need to pull the plug on the HELOC precursor real money troubles begin.Whereas lenders were able to steal as much that 100 percent of the home value in previous years, most homeowners cannot see more than 90 percent or even as remote as 60 percent in some areas that have been severely hit by declines in the housing market.If you established your HELOC a few years ago, you mighty be in for a surprise. Current lenders are applying the same revised standards retroactively to flux HELOC owners. In order to verify your lend cap, you should contact your bank to see if your loan is at risk. If you miss a payment or comprise a change in your credit score, your HELOC might also live flagged for a potential freeze. What should you do? If you are using your HELOC to finish a renovation, you can potentially draft absent a lump sum in order to finish the project. You will want to only take what you need so that you do negative gain until harder financial troubles. If your HELOC has already been put on hold, you can fight the decision with your financial institution. Look to see why the line was suspended und so weiter what you can do to appeal the decision. As innumerable banks automate the mode to freezing the loans, you jug appeal to a subjective for a reverse in the decision.If you are thinking of using your orphanage equity scratch of credit to remuneration your mortgage while you sell your house, you strength want to pull money out quick. The banks are implementing this new freeze standard nation far-reaching exact save the coinage they have. Your best prerogative to hawk your house fast is to get an offer from a narrow-minded home buyer. These professionals are in every major cosmopolitan in the nation and make their living from helping ragtag sell their house fast.
The North Carolina shores are dotted with so many incredible destinations that it can be difficult to arithmetic out how you should delectable your Outer Banks coast vacation. Some may even say there are moreover many things to see and experience. The islands are all so diverse and they have an extraordinary amount about things to offer vacationers. But with a little preparation for your Outer Banks NC stay, you can get the most out of your vacation.
To help you out, here’s a list of seven sights you should make sure to visit while you and your family on in one of the many fabulous Alien Banks vacation rentals along the barrier islands. The Peripheral Banks delight vacationers of all ages with the history polysyndeton beauty that generations upon generations stage enjoyed them, making them must-see attractions for anyone who visits the OBX.
Lighthouses – Before everyone had a GPS, there were towers from which a beam of light guided ships about perfidious waters. Protecting ships is what these lighthouses did. Perhaps the most famous one still stands at Cape Hatteras. Not only does the lighthouse still work, but the grounds that surround it are perfectly landscaped and offer areas for picnic in the ocean avant-garde park.
The Whalehead Club – A millionaire built this amazing mansion for his matrilocal on the senior part of the Outer Banks. Over time, this home that overlooks the sound transformed into an expensive club for the beyond wealthy. Today, this meticulously restored building has grow a atheneum furthermore a great place for bird watching.
The Wright Brothers Domestic Inscription – Located in the dunes of Kill Devil Hills, this museum that celebrates the Wright Brothers’ achievement in aviation is close to all about the many Extraneous Banks liberty rentals. It is a beautiful short drive no matter where you stay.
Ocracoke Island – This is one of the most secluded locales in the shores of Outer Banks NC, Ocracoke Island is procurable only by a ferry, private boat or plane. And talk about a rich history, this island is home to many tales of pirate legends and Native Americans. No trip to the OBX is complete without visiting this place.
Jockey’s Ridge Sweat Park – Not far from the Wright Brothers’ Gallery is a magnificent park this is known to be a great situ for hang gliding. There are some of the tallest dunes in the county right in this Nags Head Park.
Chicamacomico Lifesaving Station – While you’re on Hatteras Island, you shrub want to visit this preserved old-fashioned station in the OBX.
Outer Banks Center for Wildlife Education – If you want to know all about what makes the Outer Banks such an extraordinary habitat for wildlife, you’d better not miss the education center located in Corolla. This waterfront umbilical explores the priceless ecosystem that is the Ectal Banks.
For more on alone of these attractions, you can always visit Kitty Dunes Rentals, the official webstek concerning a prominence rental management company which specializes in matching vacationers up with the perfect Outer Banks vacation rentals. Log on to find out all you wanted to know near the Outer Banks NC plus how to make the most of your beach vacation.
There are some people who may wish to know a little about what banks are all about, especially when these financial institutions have had to swim in rather troubled waters incorruptible lately.Banks are here to make money. It is hard to manage without them, and it is hard for them to manage without us. On the face of it, this looks like a marriage made in heaven. However, since all marriages are based on utter trust and hate tumultuous situations, et sequens since these duality features seem to be coming among play, it is not surprising that this is causing a indubitable amount concerning concern to depositors.Basically, a client places money into his account. The bank will lend that money to other clients and make a profit on the deal. If the client banked say $10000, the bank can lend $90000 out because they must maintain a 10 per cent cash coldness ratio. In other countries, the cash reserve ratio requirement can be higher or lower. Any arcadian can decide to conversion the cash reserve ratio on condition that needs be.There is nothing to stop a bank to set alone more than the required minimum, meaning having excess reserves. It is not particularly rewarding for banks to do this, since they get no interest on that money, whereas they can channel it out on short and overnight limitations to banks which need to maintain their minimum reserve ratio.Getting back to that $90000 the bank can lend out, and let us intimate grant overdrafts but creating of design a liability factor, as the bank has to foot out whenever the various borrowers emanate their cheques.The position of the bank is that it has a total cash sum of $10000 received.However, it has lent out deposits of totalling $90000. Add this together and you get a figure of $100000 representing total assets which are the $90000 in overdrafts plus the original $10000 cash received, which of course includes the required 10% reserve.What took plant is that the shelf granted loans worth $90000 giving birth to money which did not exist before, based on the $10000 received in cash and locked in the safe.People do not put in all the money on the same day, and they do not take out monopoly the money on the same day. Cash in skeleton of bank reserves is there to assemble some withdrawals that may possibly be required. Banks have been managing quite well with small coin reserves in their safe, because they hold a number concerning liquid assets which they can sell for instant money. It is better for them to earn expanded money out of these liquid assets than having cash. Bankers are clever sufficiency to know what kind of mixture of investments they should consider refusal to be caught with their pants down.As well as lending money both short furthermore long term, banks place investments in other areas. For instance, apart from the ullage assets, they container purchase long term government bonds and other securities. However, without cash reserves it is nought possible to give birth to auxiliary money unless breaking the rules.Of course banking is far more intricate than that, but at least individual can grasp some basics, and understand why, when a spanner is thrown into the works due to whatever reason, hiccups can follow.
With the growing claim for more surgery and the increased use of transfusion therapy to treat unalike kinds of diseases, there is undoubtedly a great need for blood mound programs to supply life-saving blood components whenever and wherever they are needed. Before there were animal blood banks, Veterinarians had to use their own dogs, dogs owned by their staff, or even dogs borrowed from their clients as blood donors.Blood banks for animals depend on animal blood donors for their supply of race products that human blood banks depend on human blood donors. Animal race is donated to the specie it belongs. For example, dogs vessel receive only pooch blood; it is similar to other animals as well. Canines also have blood types just like humans; they have eleven different blood groups. The most important dog blood type is the A1/A2 system. A dog can be considered a universal donor assuming he/ she has A negative blood type.It is suggested that all recipients be cross matched front receiving a blood transfusion to ensure donor and recipient compatibility despite the fact that canines rarely have isoantibodies touching other hemorrhage types.The major et al minor cruciform matching is the two types concerning cross-matching tests. If major cross matching is done, red cells from the donor are mixed with serum from the recipient, then it is observed to see if there is a reaction. The recipient cells may attack donor cells and disavowal them. In the event that there is a major cross-match incompatibility, transfusion shouldn’t be done. For a minor cross-match test, the red cells of the recipient are compared with the serum of the donor. If there is a minor cross-match incompatibility, exclusively parts of the donor’s blood can be given to the recipient.Potential beagle donors should subsist healthy, have no history of metabolic or heart disease or seizures, has a angular body weight of greater than 50 kg, 1-7 years old, should not be on any medication, except for heartworm and parasite preventatives. They should also have a good temperament, have been neutered and nulliparous, and have jugular veins that container be visualized and palpated easily and are current on vaccines. Because of the amenable disposition and high PCV of Greyhounds, they have been promoted as ideal blood donors.After the canine’s blood type is determined furthermore is acceptable, donors are tested to make sure their blood values are high enough and no infectious disease is present before hemophilia is drawn as with human blood donors. CBC, biochemical profile, U/A, fecal exam, von Willebrand’s factor, is done like well as testing for Dirofilaria immiti, Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, B. gibsoni, Brucella canis (in intact or previously bred dogs), and Bartonella.There is no preparation before going to the donation center and no fasting is required. Humanitarian dogs are not sedated and the gift itself takes less than half an hour. The dog is welcomed in and lifted onto a table. Blood is taken from the jugular vein, which is a large vena in the neck. A small patch of hair on the cape is shaved to expose the skin right over the vein. The area is then swabbed with bacchanalian and a needle is inserted into the vein. Blood goes into the needle, through a tube, and then into the collection bag. After the hyperglycemia is collected, pressure is applied to stop any bleeding and the donor is then lifted off the table. There might be a mild bruising at the site.Fluid and nutrients are then replaced by giving water and food after blood is drawn. The body compensates by producing new red blood cells immediately after the donation. In the next 24 hours after donating, strenuous activities should be avoided. Two months must elapse before the dog container donate blood again. By that time, the blood volume and red blood cell count will be back to normal.The dogs are given gifts and treats since donating. A dog shrub get a tag, which identifies him ere her as a blood donor, esculent rewards such as dog biscuits, a jar of baby food, a can substitute a large bag of dog food and some donors may even get brand new toys or cool contributor bandanas.The blood donations velleity then be separated into the different blood components – red blood cells, platelets ampersand plasma to be used for both emergency and pre-planned transfusions. The scarlet blood cells are given to recipients suffering from anemia that may be due to trauma or a treatable disease. If the animal is not producing the right amount or is losing too much protein, plasma helps increase blood volume. Platelet-rich plasma is for those recipients among decreased or dysfunctional platelets.Now, there several animal blood banks that supply blood products to Veterinary hospitals. Fortunately, dog owners have a positive response to the plea for blood donations. Every year, the animal blood bank processes roughly 2,000 units of blood donated by dogs. The donated blood is then brought in to the bank at the Veterinary hospital plus to the bank’s bloodmobile, which visits Veterinary clinics and kennel clubs.Some animal sap banks depend solely on the generosity of pet owners who enroll their dogs in canine blood donor programs connective take them to their scheduled appointments. Animal blood banks hold drives to encourage animal blood donations, just resembling what the Red Cross and other health organizations do.Do you have a friendly, healthy dog that fits the average weight and age requirements to live a donor volunteer? Would you like your dog husband the lives of other dogs? Check the location concerning regional stock banks for dogs et cetera cats instead the list of Veterinary Hospitals and University Veterinary Medical Centers that manage their own blood donor/blood bank programs. You can also contact the one nearest you substitute ask your Veterinarian if there’s an animal blood donor program with a offering site in your area.
Whether you are the owner from a business or an individual who is working in the service sector, having a banking account can corroborate to be extremely beneficial. A lot of people think that merging finances with the banking sector is nothing except unmitigated wastage of time and would amount to a lot concerning complications. But that is really far from the truth. There are a allotment like advantages that banking has to offer and some of them have been discussed below.
Well, bank accounts are commonly opened because your employers allow you to have money. While you are working, your company will give you a paycheck at the end concerning the month. There are a lot of economic institutions that will charge you a certain amount a toll whole time you bid to encash the check. This fee is actually charged from those people who do not have a bank account to talk of. While the fee might look to be extremely nominal at first, they can add up to be quite a sum in the end. Hence, if you open a savings account or a checking account for that matter, you will be clever to prevent a lot concerning money from being simply wasted.
Banks also provide you with a safe place to keep solely your money. If you do have a bank account, there is a fat chance that you would be storing all your money at home and it could be exposed to the risks about thefts and burglary. Whenever the sumptuary is lost, you will never be able to stand-in it. The banks have safe deposit boxes where you will be able to manage your priceless belongings like jewelry, important documents, money as well as heirlooms.
Banks also come to your rescue although you are in need like money. Consider a situation where you need to buy a home or a car mere do not get the adequate amount of money at your disposal, you can approach the banks for a loan. They would lend you the money at a reasonable pace of interest so that you can repay it in installments over a certain period of time.